“Time may be the fire we burn in.” Even though we might be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is a world apart, a reminder in the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons to come.
For those who aim to discover truths about the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are usually enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that occur at critical junctions in the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties can be exploited is akin to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you means to fix the issue of the slow burn. By reducing temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists can easily seclude moments in time, returning over and over to look into that instant throughout history.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics is now a significant industry that creates customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the current market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in every single size, shape, and configuration imaginable. By using these a wide variety of products from which to choose understanding of the ones that are handiest may elude the typical consumer. So that you can provide an introduction to the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in the following paragraphs.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those stuff that many people never think about until they quit working. Made to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid the thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory throughout the day if it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost in a single afternoon– years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the ground. Although this type of scenario looms ominously inside the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared during the day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies may be the only company which uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Even though the gas industry has used this procedure for years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is an assortment of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger which is permitted to expand via a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes support the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. Several liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated in the cycle to ensure the increase of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 can be a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and also since it offers an inside power source you can use it for that transportation of samples from storage facility to research laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you want to understand the minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures have been maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is actually a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are supplied to be able to protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special combination of azeotropic gases that happen to be non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Additionally, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning them back to ensure the capillary tubing will likely be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with 4 decades of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to utilize Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low has developed an innovative compressor that may be designed exclusively for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the standard cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to accommodate a selection of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than 50 years of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil in the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has been manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for over 20 years, starting with its production of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to offer a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers currently available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for utilize in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The expression dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently put on an array of insulated vessels created for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the ground or sit down on tabletops where samples can be accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as 1 year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich loaded with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to this sort of extent that numerous companies build custom dewars to acquire. A number of these companies in addition to their merchandise is reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for numerous types of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are just a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing part of the industry for the company’s products.
MVE was the 1st company to formulate biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that period MVE has released the total type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suited to cells that could be stored at -125°C but may become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also ideal for storing hazardous materials that might cross-communicate in the liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags that are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology can be a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has were able to remain competitive is actually by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they might be custom-designed.
Certainly one of Quantum Technology’s most widely used products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries outside The United States and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is one of the factors why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained from the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified for usage time and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask brand of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types can be found with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models is available by using a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to stop pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to offer coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a variety of companies throughout the usa. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and give features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and possess capacities as much as 6,000 vials. As well as a number of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model carries a vented polyethylene stopper to reduce evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can even be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suited for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above two weeks. Many of these units come provided with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to save vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. All these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which is made to maximize the amount of vials that may be safely arranged into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are the most often used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to travel shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the first which concerns the matter of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped inside the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, along with the debate continues.
Yet another consideration which comes under consideration when selecting cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from where they are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which might negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with all the care and attention, and several businesses like Axygen are embracing new polished molds that do not require the application of releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but is likewise susceptible to fracture because of microchannels which can form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials are also prone to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not as great.
Gasketing has also been an issue of some contention with this industry. Many cryovials come with a washer that keeps the inner pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas inside the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid with the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is usually preferred as the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is likewise used, it features a tendency to shed its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, an issue which had been demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large variety of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which can be used at temperatures as little as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come built with attached leak proof caps that include a dual lip along with a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen even offers a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, that may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and therefore are pressure tested within a vacuum chamber so that the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding attributes of this tube is that it is utterly transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which are silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified to be sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge as much as 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the company warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase could lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for pretty much every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it has developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be found in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. They are most suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction ensures they are exceptionally durable, and they may be flame sealed or stored having a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, as well as simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be purchased with selected styles. All Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without having mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which are typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials was designed to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned in the centrifuge rotor to get re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. posseses an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which are right for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The user has a choice of choosing from many different externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and the polypropylene material through which they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of many areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its type of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials that contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes could be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical component of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes which make them challenging to keep trace. Labels can be brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Just about the most popular methods for containing samples will be the canister and cane. Applying this technique, several vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer method is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation from your freezer, plus cuts down on the researcher’s contact with possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the level of storage area afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is a cardboard or stainless construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems permit the user to arrange approximately 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International specializes in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to match just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to be viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in particular models to accommodate tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers which contain storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise several plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are typically keyed to prevent misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They provide vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, most of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless and can include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Probably, the cryogenic products one buys today will be the same ones that can be used for years to come. An investment made today may work for 10 years. In effect, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products for themselves, these are buying for his or her successors. The buyer should look into what might 46dexkpky throughout years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A bit money which had been saved at first by scrimping on vials or freezers might not appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards built-in to most of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products important. Appointing a permanent position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety of the laboratory’s biological collection is probably the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of these samples.